15年自由软件

It is now just over15 years since the beginning of the FreeSoftware Movement and the GNU Project。We have come a long way。

1984,it was impossible to use a modern computer withoutinstalling a proprietary operating system,which you would have toobtain under a restrictive license。不可通行的道路software freely with fellow computer users,and hardly anyone couldchange software to fit his or her own needs。软件故障had erected walls to divide us from each other。

The GNU Project was founded to change all that。Its first goal:todevelop a Unix-compatible portable operating system that would be100%free software。Not95%free,not99.5%,but100%-so thatusers would be free to redistribute the whole system,and free tochange and contribute to any part of it.The name of the system,GNU,is a recursive acronym meaning“GNU’s NotUnix”-a way of paying tribute to the technical ideas ofUnix,while at the sametime saying that GNU is something different。Technically,GNU islike Unix。But unlike Unix,GNU gives its users freedom。

安装took many years of work,by hundreds of programmers,to developthis operating system。Some were paid by the Free SoftwareFoundation and by free software companies;most were volunters。Afew have become famous;动力传动装置,动力传动装置profession,by other hackers who use or work on their code。全部,全部together have helped to liberate the potential of the computernetwork for all humanity。

In1991,the last major essential component of a Unix-like systemwas developed:Linux,the free kernel written by LinusTorvalds。GNU and Linux is used bymillions of people around the world,and its popularity isgrowing。This month,we announced release 1.0 ofGNOME单击功能区上,the GNU graphical desktop,which we hope will make the GNU/Linuxsystem as easy to use as any other operating system。

But our freedom is not permanently assured。The world does not standstill,and we cannot count on having freedom five years from now,just because we have it today。Free software faces difficultchallenges and dangers。安装will take determined efforts to preserveour freedom,just as it took to obtain freedom in the firstplace。安顿,the operating system is just thebeginning-now wed to add free applications to handle thewhole range of jobs that users want to do。

内部columns,I will be writing about the specific challenges防锈防污措施,防污措施freedom for computer users,as well as developments affecting theGNU/Linux operating system。