魔鬼山

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魔鬼山
山暗黑破坏神观和CA 24号公路从Lafayette Heights.jpg
山的西面和暗黑破坏神24号公路
最高点
高程3849 英尺(1173 m)  NAVD 88[ 1 ]
突出3109 英尺(948 m) [ 2 ]
列表加利福尼亚县高点第四十五
协调37°52′54″n 121°54′51″W/37.881697781°N 121.914154997°W/37.881697781;-121.914154997协调37°52′54″n 121°54′51″W/37.881697781°N 121.914154997°W/37.881697781;-121.914154997[ 1 ]
地理
魔鬼山位于加利福尼亚
魔鬼山
魔鬼山
魔鬼山位于美国
魔鬼山
魔鬼山
魔鬼山(美国)
母系列暗黑破坏神系列
Topo地图美国地质调查局克莱顿
地质
年龄的岩石白垩纪侏罗纪
山式沉积
登山
最简单的路线铺平道路
指定的一千九百八十二
参考 号九百零五[ 3 ]
在该湾位于麦当诺斯山麓和魔鬼山鸟瞰康科德,加利福尼亚

魔鬼山是一座山的暗黑破坏神系列,在康特拉科斯塔县东部的旧金山湾地区进入北加州这是南克莱顿和东北丹维尔

这是一个孤立的冲上3849英尺的高峰(1173 米),大多数的旧金山湾地区可见。魔鬼山似乎从多个角度为双金字塔有许多子峰,最大的和最亲近的是双金字塔,北峰的另一半,那么高的海拔3557英尺(1084 m)和大约一英里的主要峰会东北。

地理[编辑]

The summit is accessible by foot, bicycle, or motor vehicle. Road access is via North Gate Road or South Gate Road.

代阿布洛山州立公园[编辑]

The peak is in代阿布洛山州立公园, astate parkof about 20,000 acres (8,000 ha). The park was the first publicopen spaceof a complex‍—‌according to Save Mount Diablo‍—‌now including 38 preserves, including nearby city open spaces, regional parks,watersheds, that are buffered in some areas with private lands protected with conservation地役权Preserved lands on and around Mount Diablo total more than 90,000 acres (36,000 ha). The day use fee per vehicle for the park is by entrance way: $6 via Macedo Ranch (Danville) or Mitchell Canyon (Clayton), and $10 via South Gate Rd. (Danville) & North Gate Rd. (Walnut Creek) leading up Mount Diablo.[4]

视域[编辑]

On a clear day theSierra Nevadais plainly visible. The best views are after a winter storm; a snowy Sierra shows up better, and in the summer, it is more likely to be hazy.Lassen Peak, 181 miles (291 km) away, is occasionally just visible over the curve of the earth.[5][6] 哨兵岩进入Yosemite National Parkis visible,[7]但是Half Domeis hidden by the 8000-foot ridge at 37.755N 119.6657W. Eight bridges are visible, from west to east:San MateoBayGolden GateSan Rafael卡奎内兹BeniciaAntioch, andRio Vista

Claims that the mountain's可视域is the largest in the world‍—‌or second largest afterMount Kilimanjaro‍—‌are ill founded[citation needed]It does boast one of the largest viewsheds in the Western United States and played a key role in California history. Countless peaks in the state are taller, but Mount Diablo has a remarkablevisual prominencefor a mountain of such low elevation. Its looming presence over much of thebay area三角洲, andCentral Valley, and good visibility even from theMother Lode, all key regions during thegold rushand earlystatehood, made it an important landmark for mapping and navigation. The summit is used as the reference datum for land surveying in much of northern California and Nevada.

View of Mount Diablo from康科德: north peak (left), Mount Zion (center), and main peak (right),

Cultural history[编辑]

The summit of Mount Diablo

Mount Diablo is sacred to many CaliforniaNative Americanpeoples; according toMiwok mythologyOhlone mythology, it was the point of creation. Prior to European entry, the creation narrative varied among surrounding local groups. In one surviving narrative fragment, Mount Diablo and Reed's Peak (塔马尔帕斯山) were surrounded by water; from these two islands the creator Coyote and his assistant Eagle-man made Native American people and the world.[8]In another, Molok the Condor brought forth his grandson Wek-Wek the Falcon Hero, from within the mountain.[9]

Earliest names[编辑]

View of Mount Diablo's North Peak from the main peak

About 25 independent tribal groups with well-defined territories lived in the East Bay countryside surrounding the mountain. Their members spoke dialects of three distinct languages:欧隆族Bay Miwok, and Northern Valley部分[ 10 ]这个chochenyo-说ohlone来自圣荷西修道院和东湾地区,被称为山tuyshtak,意思是“黎明的时候”。大多数的魔鬼山,包括它的高峰,在早期的家园volvon(有时拼写wolwon,bolbon或bolgon),一湾米沃克说部落,早在1811,山被称为(西班牙语)“Cerro Alto de los bolbones”(Volvon高一点)或“Sierra de los bolgones”。[ 11 ]这个nisenan在萨克拉门托河谷称它为sukkúJaman,或nisenan老年达伯特卡斯特罗曾经解释说,“那里的狗来自贸易”的地方。[ 12 ]

对于山地南部的一个叫米沃克supemenenu也有人认为,另一个早期的印第安人的名字为山kawukumkahwookum,但没有证据证明的断言。据印度历史学家Bev Ortiz和“保存安装暗黑破坏神”:[ 13 ]“这个名字kahwookum是在1866由美国本土没有真正的连接称为公共道德的加利福尼亚议会的委员会,并提交。它被作为一个新的翻译,应该在1916个房地产的噱头,“笑山”,由于没有文档,暗黑地区volvon印第安人。[ 14 ]

目前的名字编辑]

传统的看法是,峰的名字来源于几个1805逃跑chupcan土著美国人从西班牙在柳树丛中。当地人似乎也消失了,和西班牙士兵因此给区域名称“Monte del Diablo”,意思是“魔鬼的丛林”。Monte后来被英语母语者为山或山。[ 15 ]

综合马里亚诺G.瓦列霍1850、在报告加利福尼亚州议会,给这么多的浪漫故事的山,暗黑破坏神的名字派生从西班牙英美形式,到山上,一个邪恶的精神相关。瓦列霍的报告可以被解释为配合Gudde的帐户。(Kyle,奥尔蒂斯)[ 8 ][ 16 ]

这个名字后来被应用于Salvio Pacheco的Rancho Monte del diablo今天,城市的网站康科德这个名字的起源是被说英语的新人指的是山而不是解决。[ 14 ]

Monte这个名字del diablo(魔鬼的“'mount)出现在“平强度áFICO de la MISIón de San José”约1824,那里是在康科德目前城市的近似网站印度结算(帕切科)。1828年8月24日,名字被应用于Monte德尔暗黑土地出让,萨尔维奥帕切科曾请求1827。

1862年5月加利福尼亚地质调查领域主任William H. Brewer命名的“山王山暗黑东北峰,后启。Thomas Starr King的一神论牧师,废奴主义者,共和党人、优诗美地国家公园的倡导者,文化统一和加利福尼亚领先的知识。今天,它仅仅是被称为北高峰。[ 17 ]

一个属性,使名称安装暗黑破坏神宜,山会发出红色的日落。[ 18 ]

重命名编辑]

暗黑破坏神的坐骑旧金山湾里士满–圣拉斐尔桥在前台

从邻镇2005亚瑟奥克利,请求联邦政府改变这座山的名称,[ 19 ]声称它冒犯了他的基督教信仰。此外,他声称,暗黑破坏神是一个活生生的人,所以是根据联邦法律禁止。[ 20 ]他最初建议命名的山kawukum,后来,Mount雅威其他建议的其他人包括Mount米沃克族和Mount欧隆族当地的印第安人部落的名字,后。最后他提出了Mount里根[ 20 ]但董事会拒绝它的理由是,一个人必须死去的五年有一个地理标志以他们的名字命名。最终,该美国地名委员会拒绝了请愿书,称没有理由改名字。

在2009名米哈雷斯再次提出Mount Reagan夏地名美国董事会因为里根现在是一名合格的收件人。[ 20 ]董事会给了康特拉科斯塔县主管委员会直到3月31日文件的意见。委员会的成员表示,虽然他们尊重里根,Mount Reagan是历史山一个合适的名称。[ 20 ]后来,董事会一致投票反对改名的山,以它的历史意义。[ 21 ]

早期使用编辑]

1851山的南峰被上校Leander赎金作为初始点那里的山暗黑基地暗黑破坏神经山线相交-地籍大面积的调查。在后续调查加利福尼亚内华达俄勒冈定位参考点。收费公路上山是由Joseph Seavey Hall和William Camron在1874创造的(有时是“卡梅伦”);大厅的魔鬼山高峰路于1874年5月2日正式开通。卡姆伦的“绿谷之路”打开以后。大厅还建在两条路交界处的16里山酒店,在山顶一英里(2500英尺的高度,通过类似废弃1895,烧毁约1901)。在北子午路,郊外奇科,加利福尼亚,峰会作为参考点。道路与峰会共线,并命名为经络相交它。

空中导航灯塔,标准的暗黑破坏神塔建造的标准石油峰会1928。[ 22 ]1000万烛光的灯塔[ 23 ]被称为暗黑破坏神”“眼睛是一百英里可见。[ 8 ]

Parks和保护土地编辑]

从奥克兰伯克利山山暗黑

1921初始立法后,加利福尼亚州获得足够的土地在1931创造峰值附近的小公园。Many improvements were carried out in the 1930s by theCivilian Conservation Corpsbut park expansion slowed in the 1940s through the 1960s. Significantly, botanistMary Leolin Bowerman(1908–2005), founder of Save Mount Diablo in 1971, published her Ph.D. dissertation in 1936 at theUniversity of California, Berkeleyand then in 1944 the book,The Flowering Plants and Ferns of Mount Diablo, CaliforniaHer study boundaries became the basis for the state park's first map and for the park's eventual expansion, as well as the origin of many of the park's place names.[8]

In 1954KOVRerected its television transmitter tower on the mountain. One of the workers involved in the project said that parts of the tower were trucked up to the summit and assembled there. Based in Stockton, the station eventually became affiliated with美国广播公司and was known for its popular "Toonytown" program hosted byArt FinleyWith the completion of the mammoth television tower nearWalnut Grove, KOVR moved its transmitter there and later relocated its studios to萨克拉门托

This initial park has been greatly expanded over the years. Soon after Earth Day in 1971 the nonprofit organization "Save Mount Diablo"[24]was created by co-founders Mary Bowerman and Art Bonwell, barely ahead of real estate developers. At the time, the state park included just 6,788 acres (2,747 ha) and was the only park in the vicinity of the mountain. In 2007 the state park totaled almost 20,000 acres (8,100 ha), and with 38 parks and preserves on and around the mountain, Diablo's public lands total more than 90,000 acres (36,000 ha). According to Save Mount Diablo there are actually 50 individual preserves on and around Mount Diablo, some conservation easements covering a single parcel, others expected to eventually be absorbed into larger nearby parks; as of December 2007, the organization recognizes 38 specific Diablo parks and preserves.[citation needed]

The State Park adjoins park lands of theEast Bay Regional Park District, includingMorgan TerritoryRegional Preserve,Brushy Peak Regional PreserveVasco Caves Regional Preserve, andRound Valley Regional PreservesIt also adjoins protected areas owned or controlled by local cities such as theBorges Ranch Historic Farm, theConcord Naval Weapons Station(now in the process of being converted to non military use), Indian Valley,Shell Ridge Open SpaceLime Ridge Open Spaces近的city of Walnut Creek, and east to theLos Vaqueros Reservoirwatershed, The newMarsh Creek State ParkABlack Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, are among the open spaces stretching back to the north. 这样的开放空间,控制城市,东湾公园区、魔鬼山国家公园,和各区域保留现在毗邻和保护多山的升高的区域,与阿罗约del Cerro,Curry Canyon重要的例外,沼泽溪地区和北峰北坡,在一些国家公园内的私有地包围保护土地。

公园的持续扩张,四周山坡上的虽然它的西部边界基本上是完整的。广泛的发展继续在西南山麓,Tassajara区域,如高档发展黑鹰和个人财产在摩根境内道路俯瞰利弗莫尔谷。在北部的黑钻石矿和洛杉矶麦当诺斯山麓提出其他大型工程项目,在康科德海军武器站,和附近的科威尔牧场州立公园。其他私人包裹的大规模发展是由市、县城市限行的限制,由于缺乏水,过度的斜坡和敏感资源,包括稀有物种。较小的小牧场主分支继续片段和威胁到许多包裹和大面积的栖息地。

地图的保护区编辑]

2007节省安装暗黑发表魔鬼山,洛牧者及周边公园、特色的暗黑破坏神的踪迹、最准确和最新的地图上暗黑的超过90000英亩(36000 公顷)的保护区,包括100个接入点,520英里(840 公里)TRAIL和400英里(640 公里)私人消防道路。更新面积和步道里程是伴随新闻材料和新闻文章讨论。[ 25 ]

自然史编辑]

地质编辑]

魔鬼山是一个地质异常约30英里(50 公里)东旧金山。山是地质压缩结果,隆起造成的在地球的板块运动山位于收敛地震故障和持续增长缓慢。而在该地区的主要断裂的型,显著的逆冲断层(没有表面痕迹)是在山的西南面发现。隆起和随后的风化和侵蚀已经暴露了古老的海洋侏罗纪白垩纪年龄的岩石,形成了现在的峰会。山上每年长三~五毫米。

山的上部是由那些曾经被一个或一个以上的岛弧火山岩和沉积矿床法拉龙板块追溯到侏罗纪和白垩纪时期,90至1亿9000万年前。在这期间,法伦板块俯冲下的北美大陆。这些存款被刮掉了顶部和增生到北美板块。这导致了高度扭曲和玄武岩裂隙和蛇纹石对济复绕山蛇绿岩和变质的暗黑峰会。俯冲带的东部,一盆满是来自祖先塞拉泥沙进一步向东。高达60000英尺(18000米)的砂岩、泥岩、灰岩的大峡谷的序列沉积在66到1亿5000万年前。这些存款现在发现断对蛇绿岩和圣方济各会的存款。

化石贝壳在砂岩在山上(约3800的暗黑破坏神MSL

在过去的2000万年中大陆存款已放下,随后在定期在新形成的圣安德烈亚斯断层系统,形成海岸山脉。在过去的四百万年里,当地的断层导致压缩,折叠,弯曲,和侵蚀,使各单位在当前的并置。这个断层作用的不断变化,魔鬼山的形状,随着沿海剩下的范围。

山的山顶区暗黑破坏神是由沉积的灰色砂岩(砂岩),燧石、海洋火山玄武岩(四)和少量的shaleThe hard red Franciscan chert issedimentaryin origin and rich in microscopicradiolaria fossilsand seashells. In the western foothills of the mountain there are large deposits of younger sandstone rocks also rich in seashells, severely tilted and in places forming dramatic ridgelines. Mount Diablo is a double pyramid and some[who?]say it resembles a volcano (which it isn't).

Deposits of glassmaking-grade sand and lower-qualitynorth of the mountain were mined in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but are now open to visitors as theBlack Diamond Mines Regional PreserveGuided tours of the sand mines and coal field are provided.

植被[编辑]

灰松(foothill pine), the most common tree species in the park, is dwarfed by harsh conditions near the summit of Mount Diablo.

The park's vegetation is mixed橡树woodland and savannah and open grassland with extensive areas ofchaparraland a number ofendemicplant species, such as theMount Diablo manzanita(Arctostaphylos auriculata),Mount Diablo fairy-lantern(Calochortus pulchellus),chaparral bellflower(Campanula exigua),Mount Diablo bird's beak(Cordylanthus nidularius), andMount Diablo sunflower(Helianthella castanea). The park includes substantial thickets, isolated examples, and mixed ground cover ofwestern poison oak(It is best to learn the characteristics of this shrub and its toxin before hiking on narrow trails through brush and to be aware that it can be bare of leaves (but toxic to contact) in the winter.)

At higher altitudes and on north slopes is the widely distributedfoothill pine(灰松).Knobcone pine(Pinus attenuata) may be found along Knobcone Pine Road in the southern part of the park. 公园附近黑钻石矿山区域保护标记范围的北端大果松松coulteri)。这个物种可以看到附近沿北松树小径(Mitchell Canyon)入口。

2005濒危物种 暗黑荞麦山Eriogonum元宝枫),认为自去年见过1936濒临灭绝,在山上的一个偏远的地区发现了。

野生动物编辑]

所有的植被,公园内的野生动物保护和矿物是消除这些物品或骚扰任何野生动物非法。

常见的动物包括:郊狼山猫黑尾鹿加州地松鼠狐松鼠灰色的狐狸许多其他哺乳动物,包括;狮子山区目前。这是一个总剩余的避难所威胁 Alameda地区的鞭蛇加利福尼亚红腿蛙不常见的野生物种,包括重新游隼猫的猫,向东美洲獾圣华金狐狸走鹃加州虎蝾螈,和穴居猫头鹰也有外来(非本地)的动物如红狐狸负鼠,后者是美国北部唯一的有袋类

在九月和十月的男性tarantulaspiders can be seen (Aphonopelma smithi) as they seek a mate. These spiders are harmless unless severely provoked, and their bite is only as bad as a bee sting. More dangerous are黑寡妇蜘蛛, far less likely to be encountered in the open.

In the wintertime, between November and February,bald eagles金雕are present. These birds are less easily seen than many raptors; golden eagles, particularly, fly at high elevations. Mount Diablo is part of the Altamont Area/Diablo Range, which enjoys the largest concentration of golden eagles anywhere. In recent years there have been credible sightings of California condors, which have been reintroduced at Pinnacles National Park, located to the south in the Gilroy-Hollister area.

Of special note as potential hazards areNorthern Pacific rattlesnakeWhile generally shy and non-threatening, one should be observant and cautious of where one steps to avoid accidentally disturbing one. They are often found warming themselves in the open (as on trails and ledges) on cool, sunny days. Other wildlife to avoid include fleas, ticks and mosquitoes.

There has also been an increase in the mountain lion population in the larger region and one should know how to respond if these animals are encountered. Please see themountain lion safety tipsin theMountain lion文章

设施[编辑]

Summit-building roof promenade and beacon tower, Mount Diablo, constructed byCivilian Conservation Corps, 1939-42

Entrance stations are located at the end of Northgate Road (inWalnut Creek) and Diablo Road (inDanville). The Danville entrance is also known as Southgate. If the entrance stations are not operating, park fees may be paid at the junction ranger station, where the two roads join.

From here the road reaches the summit of the mountain, where there is a visitors center housing an observation deck and natural history exhibits. From the elevation of the lower lot the Mary Bowerman Trail is a level wheelchair-accessible path and boardwalk with interpretive stations that extends part way around the mountain; a regular single track trail completes the loop.[26]There are 520 miles (840 km) of远足and equestrian trails, some available formountain biking

露营facilities are available within the park. There are numerous picnic sites. Pets are restricted and require proper documentation for rabies (not just a tag). Daytime visitors must exit the park by sunset except for special events. Some picnic spots may be reserved but most are available without reservation.

Alcohol is strictly forbidden in the park. Fires are allowed only during the wet season (generally December through April), and only in sanctioned fire pits. The park may be closed on windy days during the dry season due to extremely hazardous fire conditions.

Two additional entrances with parking for hikers are provided on the northwest side of the park at Mitchell Canyon and Donner Canyon. Mitchell Canyon provides easy access to Black Point and Eagle Peak. Donner Canyon provides hikers access to Eagle Peak, Mount Olympia, North Peak, and the popular Falls Trail, which features several seasonal waterfalls.

气候[编辑]

Snow on the peaks of Mount Diablo, as seen from Walnut Creek

这个National Weather Servicemaintains a weather station at Mount Diablo Junction, 2,170 feet (661 m) above sea level. The warmest month at the station is July with an average high of 85.2 °F (29.5 °C) and an average low of 59.6 °F (15.3 °C). 最冷的月份是一月,平均高55.6 °F(13.1 °C)和平均低39.3°(4.1 °C)。最高气温记录有111 °F(43.9 °C)1972年7月15日。有记录的最低温度是14 °F(10 °C)在1989年2月6日和1990年12月14日。(The旧金山纪事报报道称,温度下降到10 °F(12.2 °C)在1962年1月21日的峰会。)的温度达到90 °F(32.2 °C)或更高,在每年的36天和100 °F平均(37.8 °C)或更高,一年3.3天。32 °F低点(0 °C)或降低发生在平均每年15.4天。需要的引证]年平均降雨量为23.96英寸(609 毫米)。记录在一个月的降水量最多为13.54英寸(344 毫米)1998年2月。最大的24小时降水为5.02英寸(128 毫米)1972年1月21日。可测量降水年平均天数是65.3天。

在魔鬼山交界处的平均降雪量为1.2英寸(30 毫米)每年。在2009之前,观察一个月最多降雪为17英寸(430 毫米)1975年4月;同一个月看到了6英寸(150 毫米)在一天(1975年4月4日)。最大积雪深度为3英寸(76 毫米)1972年1月27日。可测量的降雪不会每年都发生,所以可测量降雪量平均每年只有5天的日子。在山上游雪更常见。2009年12月7日安装暗黑破坏神得到了少见的18英寸的雪事件(460 毫米),接收更多的一天,它通常能在一年。[ 27 ]

数据采集记录编辑]

需要注意的是,气象站位于山的高度只有约55%的重要,和温度和雪的水平是在山上达到显著差异,其中更多的雪和较低的温度下都可能发生,只是还没有被记录。附近的海湾地区的山脉,像汉密尔顿山实际上,在山的最高高度的气象站。这就是为什么记录雪水平芒特哈密尔顿比在魔鬼山交界处记录的高得多,即使在芒特哈密尔顿和魔鬼山高度差只有约400英尺(120 m)。

三个条件是按实际的高峰,然而:风速、风向和温度;并可通过自动电话语音应答系统。记录有关门开放时代,道路和宠物的限制,和事件可在另一个号码。这些数字是张贴在公园网站。[ 28 ]

山暗黑的气候数据,加利福尼亚3849英尺
一月 二月 损坏 四月 五月 六月 七月 八月 九月 OCT 十一月 东方电气
创纪录的高°F(°C) 七十三
(23)
七十五
(24)
八十
(27)
八十六
(30)
九十四
(34)
九十九
(37)
一百零三
(39)
一百
(38)
一百零一
(38)
九十
(32)
七十八
(26)
七十三
(23)
一百零三
(39)
平均高°F(°C) 四十七
(8.3)
四十九点一
(9.5)
五十二点五
(11.4)
五十八点二
(14.6)
六十五点五
(18.6)
七十五点三
(24.1)
八十三点八
(28.8)
八十四点三
(29.1)
七十九点六
(26.4)
六十四点八
(18.2)
五十点五
(10.3)
四十八点二
(9)
六十四点七
(18.2)
Average low °F (°C) 二十八点一
(−2.2)
二十九点七
(−1.3)
三十二点五
(0.3)
三十六点六
(2.6)
四十二点二
(5.7)
四十七点一
(8.4)
五十一点四
(10.8)
五十点二
(10.1)
四十四点五
(6.9)
三十八点一
(3.4)
三十点一
(−1.1)
二十九点五
(−1.4)
四十二点九
(6.1)
Record low °F (°C)
(−13)
十五
(−9)
二十五
(−4)
二十七
(−3)
三十一
(−1)
三十四
(1)
三十八
(3)
三十四
(1)
三十
(−1)
二十九
(−2)
十七
(−8)
十四
(−10)

(−13)
平均降水inches (mm) 四点九五
(125.7)
四点二四
(107.7)
三点七六
(95.5)
二点二九
(58.2)
零点六五
(16.5)
零点零二
(0.5)

(0)

(0)
零点一七
(4.3)
一点七二
(43.7)
二点六一
(66.3)
四点八一
(122.2)
二十五点零九
(637.3)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 二点六
(6.6)
二点一
(5.3)
一点一
(2.8)

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)
零点一
(0.3)
二点五
(6.4)
八点四
(21.4)
Average precipitation days(≥ 0.01 in) 十二 十二 六十二
Average snowy days(≥ 0.1 inch) 二点五 二点三 一点二 零点三 二点二 八点五
Source #1: NOAA (normals, 1981–2010)[29]
Source #2: NOAA (precipitation and snowfall)[30]

Art and literature[编辑]

Sunset on Mount Diablo byWilliam Keith, 1877.

Mount Diablo has inspired many artists and writers. Early work centered on exploration, surveying and was related to the rise and popularization of tourism in the Pacific west. Themes were suggested and heightened by early tourism promoters, the beginnings of the area's preservation and the rise of the environmental movement. The focus was accelerated by artists associated with theUniversity of California, Berkeley, the California College of Arts, the actions of the organizations Save Mount Diablo and the Mount Diablo Interpretive Association, and area art centers, galleries, and museums. In modern times Mount Diablo art has been most strongly represented in plein aire painting, especially the group Artists for Action, and photography.

Representative work includes books and articles by classical writers such as William Brewer,Richard Henry Dana, Jr.Alexandre Dumas, pèreBret Harte, and the ReverendThomas Starr King, and modern ones such as Mark Allen Cunningham. Poets whose work features the mountain includePhilip Lamantia, Andrew Schelling, and Helen Pinkerton.

Early painters include Thomas Almond Ayres, Eugene Camerer, W. H. Dougal, Eduard Hildebrandt, Charles Hittell,Edward Jump, William Keith,John Ross Key, Charles Koppel, Edward Lehman, Pascal Loomis, Henry Miller, Joseph Warren Revere, through Clarkson Dye and others, to modern painters such as Robert Becker, Frank J. Bette, Ruth Breve, Betty Boggess Lathrap, Paul Carey, Bob Chapla, Mary Lou Correia, Ellen Curtis, Pam Della, Susan Dennis, Warren Dreher, John Finger, Pam Glover, JoAnn Hanna, Peg Humphreys, Don Irwin, Jeanne Kapp, Geri Keary, Chris Kent, Paul Kratter, Eunice Kritscher, Fred Martin, Cathy Moloney, Shirley Nootbaar, Charlotte Panton, Greg Piatt, Kenneth Potter, Robin Purcell, Ocean Quigley, Don Reich, Mary Silverwood, Barbara Stanton, Bruce Stangeland, Marty Stanley, and even the recognized comic book painterDan Brereton

Photographers include亚当斯, Cleet Carlton, Alfred A. Hart, Scott Hein, Stephen Joseph, Don Paulson, Brad Perks, Robert Picker, Richard Rollins, David Sanger, Michael Sewell and Bob Walker.

The mountain has inspired musical artists ranging from the克罗诺斯四重奏to commissioned works by the加州交响乐团The pop-punk bandThe Story So Far, who are from the area, have a song titled Mt. Diablo.

The mountain's name is the source for the "Devils" part of the name of theBlue Devils Drum and Bugle Corps, a 17 time Drum Corps International world champion corps, founded and based in Concord, California since 1957.

大卫·布雷维克, head of暴雪北方, got the idea for the name of theDiablo game franchisefrom Mt. Diablo while living nearby.[31]

In Marvel Comics, the Black Celestial named Tiamut was imprisoned under Mt Diablo for his crimes against the other Celestials. Arishem and the others sealed him away beneath the Diablo Mountain Range in California. See Fantastic Four Vol 1 #339 and #340.

Famous residents[编辑]

Mount Diablo has been the home of a number of famous residents.

James "Grizzly" Adamswas a frequent visitor and resident on Mount Diablo in the mid-1850s.[32]

Robert Walter "Bob" Jones, the first professional baseball player from Contra Costa County, was born in the "Jones House" in Irish Canyon in 1889, a current acquisition project of Save Mount Diablo.

The Mount Diablo Ranch, or Diablo Ranch, was successively owned by Robert Noble Burgess (b. 1878 - d. 1965), who founded the community of Diablo and built the mountain's first auto roads, and millionaire Walter Paul Frick (aka W.P. Frick, b. 1875 - d. 1937), who lived in Diablo and was important in the creation of the State Park in 1931, including sale of six of the first seven parcels for the new park.

Jazz pianistDave Brubeckgrew up on Brubeck Ranch near the park's Northgate entrance.

The area for the 6,500-acre (2,630 ha) Blackhawk Farm, including the mountain's southern Black Hills, was acquired from Burgess and created by Ansel Mills Easton, the namesake uncle of photographer Ansel Adams. Eventually nearly two-thirds of the farm was added to Mount Diablo State Park. The remainder was developed as the community of黑鹰由居住的开发商肯·贝林

传说与民俗编辑]

魔鬼山一直是众多的报告有关的网站动物学闹鬼神秘的灯光,和其他各种奇异现象(据说,名字”魔鬼山“是来自这种怪异的事件是所谓的倾向,或在附近的山)。幻影黑”黑豹“看到不寻常的频率在山的斜坡上,以及在“魔鬼洞“区域的拉斯维加斯特姆帕斯区域的荒野需要的引证]早在1806,综合 马里亚诺瓜达卢佩瓦列霍(1807年7月4日–1890年1月18日)报道一个飞行,光谱的幽灵相遇,而从事军事行动反对bolgones乐队的米沃克湾部落。需要的引证]1873、活青蛙被说成是一个板内找到石灰石在一个山上的暗黑破坏神。[ 33 ]

事件编辑]

山顶的游客中心展示新飞机信标鸟瞰

每年秋天,山雄狼蛛暗黑破坏神出现从他们的洞穴寻找伴侣。山暗黑破坏神解释协会提供引导的上调观察迁移。[ 34 ]“的狼蛛”月可以开始早在8月,持续到十月。[ 35 ]

12月7日,飞机在山顶灯塔建筑每年照从日落到黎明。追悼会上偷袭珍珠港1941的这一天,是在峰会上举行,有一些剩下的几个幸存者存在。欢迎市民和游客可以在这一天下午4:00前进入公园。General parking will be at the lower lot on these days, with a short uphill walk by trail or road to the summit. Visitors may leave later than usual — this is one of the few opportunities to view the sunset from the peak, weather permitting, without either an overnight stay or a hike to the summit from outside the gates.

Under cloudless conditions, more interesting than the sunset itself is the view of the progression of the mountain's shadow across theCalifornia Central Valleyto the distantSierra Nevada, finally appearing for a few moments above the horizon as a shadow in the post-sunset sky glow.

In April 1946, an Army C-45 transport plane crashed on the north side of the mountain, killing the pilot and co-pilot.[36]

Save Mount Diablosponsors many spring and fall schedules of events on the mountain, Spring on Diablo and Autumn on Diablo, as well as many other special events, including its anniversary event, Moonlight on the Mountain; Four Days Diablo, a trip on the Diablo Trail; the Mount Diablo Challenge, an annualhill climbto the summit with more than 1,100 cyclists each October; and the Mount Diablo Trail Adventure, combined 10k and half-marathon hikes and runs.

The park is popular in winter, when Bay Area residents can enjoy the rare experience of snowfall on the mountain. Snow occurs from the lower reaches of the park all the way to the peak, as was the case in February 2001 and February and March 2006. On Friday, March 10, 2006, an extremely cold storm moved into the region from the阿拉斯加湾, and noticeable amounts of snow fell in all regions of the Bay Area above 500 feet (152 m). The summit of the mountain received around six inches (15 cm) of snow at its peak, and the access roads were closed to automobiles at the 3,000 feet (914 m) mark due to the hazardous icy conditions above.

Occasionally there will be public access to astronomical observations made by a local astronomy club. This club was allocated a small parcel on the mountain and developed a permanent observatory at this location. The observatory has a computer-controlled telescope with a CCD camera.[37]

Mount Diablo Challenge bicycle race[编辑]

A cyclist riding up Mount Diablo

The Mount Diablo Challenge is a bicycle race held annually on the first Sunday in October and benefiting non-profit, Save Mount Diablo's land preservation programs. The race begins at the Athenian School at the base of the mountain and climbs 3,249 feet (990.3 m) in 10.8 miles (17.4 km). The race typically draws between 800 and 1,100 riders each year who compete in a mass-start format. Bicycle riders of every age and ability are represented in the diverse field, from weekend enthusiasts to top professionals. Prizes are typically awarded to the top overall male and female finishers, along with several age-specific categories. The most coveted prize is the special "One-Hour" T-shirts, awarded to those who finish the climb in less than one hour.

Course record[编辑]

The course record for the Mount Diablo climb currently stands at 43 minutes, 33 seconds, set on October 5, 2008, by Nate English (ZteaM) 4 days after breaking his thumb in a bike accident.[38]He broke the 44 minutes, 58 seconds record, set in 2004 by former professional cyclist Greg Drake (Webcor Cycling Team) of Redwood City, California.[39]The previous course record was set by former professional cyclist Mike Engleman (Coors Light Pro Cycling Team) in 1990 with a time of 45 minutes, 20 seconds.

The fastest woman's time recorded at the Mount Diablo climb was set in 2012 by Flavia Oliveira (48 minutes, 13 seconds). In 2016, Flavia competed at theOlympic Games进入里约热内卢[40]where she finished in seventh place.

Outside of the actual Mt Diablo Challenge each October, the climb is one of the more popular uploaded to斯特拉瓦, with over 11000 attempts recorded as of mid 2014. The top 10 times listed there are all from the环加州, which has used Mt Diablo as a stage several times. The fastest time (41:39) as of July 2014 is held by professional Curaçaoan cyclistMarc de Maarset in May 2013.[41]


Mount Diablo Memorial Marker inside summit visitor center

Seeing from the outside[编辑]

Mount Diablo is easily visible from many places in California from the foothills inThe Sierra, to local vantage points. One local vantage point is Pleasant Hill'sDinosaur Hill Park[42]山暗黑破坏神另一种观点是从海伦娜山山顶可见。

参见编辑]

地图坐标使用: OpenStreetMap 
下载坐标: KML · GPX

笔记编辑]

  1. ^ 原名科威尔牧场州立公园。

推荐信编辑]

  • “魔鬼山国家公园的小册子” (PDF)加利福尼亚国家公园。二千恢复11月15日,二千零一十五
  1. ^ B “魔鬼山”NGS数据表美国国家大地测量局恢复6月28日,二千零九
  2. ^ “魔鬼山,加利福尼亚”peakbagger.com恢复6月28日,二千零九
  3. ^ “魔鬼山”历史保护办公室,加利福尼亚国家公园恢复2012-10-06
  4. ^ “一天使用费” (PDF)加州州立公園恢复1月24日,二千零一十五
  5. ^ “Mt Diablo Viewshed”heywhatsthat.com恢复7月4日,二千零一十四
  6. ^ “计算机生成的MT暗黑破坏神”观www.peakfinder.org
  7. ^ “从哨兵圆顶山暗黑破坏神”的视图合成www.peakfinder.org恢复7月5日,二千零一十四
  8. ^ B C D 亚当斯,塞思(下降2000)。“历史上的暗黑破坏神”魔鬼山解释协会。转载自:山暗黑的回顾。存档2007年10月11日恢复7月4日,二千零一十
  9. ^ Merriam, C. Hart (1910).The Dawn of the World: Myths and Weird Tales Told by the Mewan Indians of CaliforniaCleveland: Arthur H. Clark.OCLC 二百五十八万一千一百五十二
  10. ^ Milliken, Randall, (2008) Native Americans at Mission San Jose , 2008, Malki-Ballena Press.
  11. ^ "John Marsh Historic Trust"
  12. ^ "About Mount Diablo"SaveMountDiablo.org. Archived fromthe originalon February 12, 2010恢复November 15,二千零一十五http://www.savemountdiablo.org/why_mtdiablohistory.html
  13. ^ "Mount Kawukum? Save Mt. Diablo's Name"SaveMountDiablo.org. Archived fromthe originalon June 24, 2007恢复November 15,二千零一十五
  14. ^ b Ortiz, Bev (Autumn 1989). "Mount Diablo as Myth and Reality: An Indian History Convoluted".13 (4).American Indian Quarterly,: 457–470.explains the mountain's naming and debunks the name "Kahwookum" as fictitious.
  15. ^ Cunningham, Mark (2004).The Green Age of Asher WitherowUnbridled Books. p. 288.ISBN 1-932961-13-5; for one interpretation of the context of the Spanish attack on the Chupcan, see Milliken, Randall, (1995)A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1769-1810, Menlo Park, California:Ballena Press, pp.184-185, 241
  16. ^ Gudde, Edward G. (1969).One Thousand California Place Names: The Story Behind the Naming of Mountains, Rivers, Lakes, Capes, Bays, Counties and Cities(3rd ed.). University of California Press.ISBN 0-520-01432-4
  17. ^ Browning, Peter (1988).Yosemite Place NamesLafayette, Calif.: Great West Books. p. 137.ISBN 0-944220-00-2
  18. ^ https://encrypted-tbn3.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRlZW-TkO8ud7IU8rLktR6pQOBbpwHAdaLIaMCloCRL9tXHU_w_MA
  19. ^ Contra Costa Times , October 14, 2005, "Board Decides Mount Diablo Will Keep Name", accessed 06-10-17
  20. ^ b c d Gafni, Matthias (January 27, 2010)."Man Petitions to Change Name of Mount Diablo to Mount Ronald Reagan"康特拉科斯达时报恢复January 28,二千零一十
  21. ^ Paddock, Richard (February 24, 2010)."Devil Trumps Reagan in Duel Over Landmark"AOL NewsArchived fromthe originalon February 27, 2010恢复March 2,二千零一十
  22. ^ "The "Eye of Diablo" and the Standard Diablo Tower" (PDF)Diablo WatchSaveMountDiablo.org (36). 二千零三恢复July 18,二千零一十四
  23. ^ A Standard ad ( Aviation Week October 30, 1961 p14) depicts a focused beam, unlike the present light.
  24. ^ "Save Mount Diablo"SaveMountdiablo.org.
  25. ^ "Mount Diablo, Los Vaqueros & Surrounding Parks, Featuring the Diablo Trail"SaveMountDiablo.org. Archived fromthe originalon June 2, 2010恢复November 15,二千零一十五http://www.savemountdiablo.org/lands_map.html
  26. ^ "Mary Bowerman Trail" (PDF)Diablo WatchSaveMountDiablo.org. 2007春季。 3 P.。存档 (PDF)2008年7月4日恢复11月15日,二千零一十五http://www.savemountdiablo.org/downloads/about_founder_interview_of_mary_bowerman.pdf
  27. ^ 法冈,凯文(2009年12月8日)。“罕见的雪花在低海拔”旧金山纪事报恢复12月11日,二千零九
  28. ^ “魔鬼山国家公园”加州州立公園恢复11月15日,二千零一十五
  29. ^ “nowdata - NOAA气象数据”国家海洋和大气管理局恢复6月28日二千零一十三
  30. ^ “nowdata - NOAA气象数据”美国国家海洋和大气管理局。存档2010年12月13日恢复2月25日二千零一十二
  31. ^ “地狱又回来:如何游戏产业已经改变了自暗黑破坏神,“谈话的Penny Arcade Expo东2011年3月12日David Brevik。
  32. ^ Mero,威廉。“怪山山暗黑的人”康特拉科斯塔历史学会恢复7月18日,二千零一十四
  33. ^ 科尔曼,劳伦(2007)。神秘的美国口袋书 25 P.。国际标准书号 1-4165-2736-2
  34. ^ Lavin, Ken."Tarantula Time"Mount Diablo Interpretive Association恢复September 25,二千零一十四
  35. ^ Pritchett, Ken (August 7, 2014)."March of tarantulas gets early start at Mt. Diablo"2KTVU.comKTVU. Archived fromthe originalon August 12, 2014恢复September 25,二千零一十四
  36. ^ "The Crash of the C-45F on Mt. Diablo"Check-Six.com恢复November 15,二千零一十五
  37. ^ "Mount Diablo Observatory Association, M.D.O.A."恢复August 4,二千零一十三
  38. ^ "2008 Mount Diablo Bike Challenge, Overall Results"Active.com恢复October 6,二千零八
  39. ^ "2004 Mount Diablo Bike Challenge, Overall Results"DoItSports.com. Archived fromthe originalon December 25, 2007恢复October 8,二千零七
  40. ^ "Brasil define equipe do ciclismo de estrada para os Jogos do Rio 2016"(in Portuguese). Globoesporte.com. 9 June 2016恢复10 June二千零一十六
  41. ^ "Mt. Diablo: Diablo Challenge"strava.com. Archived fromthe originalon July 7, 2014恢复July 4,二千零一十四https://www.strava.com/activities/1834292
  42. ^ The Mayor of Claycord (February 20, 2013)."PHOTO: A Look at Mt. Diablo from Dinosaur Hill Park in Pleasant Hill"claycord.com恢复July 19,二千零一十三

External links[编辑]